Terms of the Week

We have to start with basic terminology in order to learn to speak intelligently about radiation. We will change the terms each week.


  • Radiation:

    Energetic Particles or Energy emitted in the form of decaying particles by substances such as Plutonium or Uranium, which are possessed of unstable Atom’s decaying spontaneously…

  • Geiger Counters:

    The tool by which we read the amounts of radiation in decay as they pass by our meter. These meters have a visual indicator of the quantity of radiation detected.

  • Alpha:

    A weak form of ionizing radiation detectable on some models of Geiger counters, typically those that incorporate a thin mica “window” at one end of the Geiger -Mueller tube.  Alpha radiation consists of positively charged particles emitted from the nucleus of an atom in the process of decay.  These particles are also very dense which, with their strong positive charge, precludes them from penetrating more than an inch of air or a sheet of paper.  Because of this, Alpha particles are not a serious health hazard, except when they are emitted from within the body as a result of ingestion, for instance, when their high energy poses an extreme hazard to sensitive living tissue.

  • Beta:

    A relatively weak form of ionizing radiation detectable on many Geiger counters, generally dependent on the thickness of the Geiger-Mueller tube wall or the existence of a “window” at the end of the tube.  Beta radiation consists of negatively charged particles emitted from an atom in the process of decay.  These particles are relatively light and can penetrate somewhat better than an Alpha particle, though still only through a few millimeters of aluminum at best.  If ingested, Beta radiation can be hazardous to living tissue.

  • Gamma:

    A very powerful and potentially very dangerous type of ionizing radiation detectable on virtually all Geiger counters.  Gamma radiation represents one extreme of the electromagnetic spectrum, particularly that radiation with the highest frequency and shortest wavelength.  (That  same spectrum also includes the more familiar X-rays, ultraviolet light, visible light, infrared rays, microwaves, and radio waves, listed in order of decreasing frequency and increasing wavelength from Gamma rays.)  Gamma rays can pass through virtually anything, and are effectively shielded or absorbed only by materials of high atomic weight such as lead.  Gamma rays are produced naturally by the sun and other bodies in outer space, their transmission to earth being known as “cosmic radiation”.  Certain minerals that make up part of the earth containing the radioactive elements Uranium and/or Thorium also emit Gamma rays.  This cosmic radiation, along with these radioactive earth minerals, combine to produce the “background count” of a Geiger counter.  That is, even when a Geiger counter (if sensitive enough) is removed from a specific radioactive object, the meter will still register a background level or count of radioactivity.  This might typically be in the range of 15 to 60 counts per minute, but will vary depending upon your location on the earth, your altitude, and the efficiency of the Geiger counter.  The background count should always be factored in or “subtracted” from the overall reading derived from a specific radioactive source.

  • X-Ray:

    Very similar to Gamma rays, but with somewhat lower frequency and longer wavelength, and detectable on virtually all Geiger counters.  They are produced from man-made sources such as X-ray tubes, arcs, and lamps.  Like Gamma radiation, X-rays are very powerful and potentially very dangerous.  They can pass through virtually anything, effectively shielded or absorbed only by materials of high atomic weight such as lead.  Because of their penetrating ability, X-rays are used to see inside the human body, destroy cancer cells in radiation therapy, or analyze the internal structure of rocks and minerals, for instance.

  • CPM:

    CPM is the standard unit of radiation measurement for the type of geiger counter being used and the size of its detector. It is also commonly used to express background radiation in numerical terms. CPM is a general rather than specific measurement of radiation. There is no standard conversion factor from CPM to other units of radiation measurement. (except for conversion factors unique to the type of geiger counter making the measurement).

  • mSv/h: A millisievert is a unit of measurement defined as the average accumulation radiation dose for an individual or host in this case, per hour.
  • Bq/k: Becquerel per kilogram. A standard scientific measurement of the number of particles decaying per second in each kilogram of a sample. 



Aluminum nuclear Geometry

 

Fluorine

Rhodium

Nucleus

White Tin 

Neutron Decacores

   A Synopsis Of Nuclear Waste Treatment Processes The effective treatment of nuclear waste using chemo-nuclear reactions based in the Hydreno Atomic model and a variety of other novel science is essentially a given.  The only limiting factors are the lack of political will, financial commitment and the refusal to believe facts which are contrary to well entrenched, but incorrect dogmas. Various Nuclear waste (Radwaste) treatment methods, now exceeding a dozen, are proposed for investigation, some of which are already approaching industrial application.  The principles employed, include sub-critical fission reactions attended by greatly accelerated decay sequences and low energy induced fusion and cold fission reactions that produce only stable end products.    

Photo-Deactivation: Also known as Photoremediation, this process utilizes monochromatic gamma radiation tuned to induce giant dipole nuclear resonance to promote sub-critical fission reactions and greatly accelerated decay sequences through disruptive harmonic vibration of the unstable target nuclei.  The process was extensively developed by the late Dr. Paul Brown.

ZIPP Fusion & Fission: Variations and refinements of the authors Passive Inertial Confinement Fusion process utilizing plasma discharges to produce High Density Electron Clusters or Electron Valudum (EV) in conjunction with cavitation bubble collapse.  The resulting coherence of Zero-Point energy via Casimir effects causes a wide variety of nuclear reactions including cold fissions, low energy induced fusions and accelerated decay chains.

Hydroxy Gas – MMX Process: The implosion of quasi-stable hydrogen oxide (hydroxy) gas produced from an excited state of water is used in conjunction with a proprietary molten metal matrix containing the radwaste.  Microscopic implosions within the matrix cause ZPE coherence resulting in cold fission and low energy fusion reactions in a manner similar to that produce by the ZIPP fusion process.   Hydroxy gas is produced in a variety of pulsed electrolysis systems including those developed by the late Stanley Meyers and Yull Brown.

Monti Process: Involves a proprietary firing mixture of powdered materials including Carbon, nitrogen and oxygen compounds and various metals capable of facilitating low energy fission and fusion reactions when ignited to produce white-hot radiant energy frequencies.  The white hot burn sequence produces prolific bubbling that evidently results in  Zero-Point energy coherence through cavitation bubble collapse within the molten metal.  The process was developed by Dr. Roberto Monti, apparently based on ancient alchemy or hyperchemistry.

Keller Catalytic Process: Similar in many respects to the Monti method, evidently using a Thermite reaction with the addition of a proprietary catalyst for initiating nuclear reactions at relatively low thermal energy inputs in the range of about 1000 to 5,000 °C.  Thermal induced atomic and nuclear resonance within the molten metal matrix in conjunction with nuclear scale Casimir effects causes a variety stabilizing nuclear reactions.

RIPPLE Fission: Utilizes a supersonic ionized gas to vapour heat exchanger to envelope the radwaste aerosol in a vacuum induced plasma vortex, which is capable of harmonic disruption of the matter sustaining Zero-Point field resulting in production of stable light elements from heavy metals such as Lead, Mercury and Americium.  Target materials undergo a form of nuclear spalation which quite literally chips away at the nucleus gradually reducing it to lighter elements such as hydrogen and oxygen.

Plasma Arc Implosion: An electrical plasma arc produced from a conventional arc welder is used to produce implosive ball lightning with prolific EV production.  The resulting discharge is used to confine an aerosol of radwaste causing a variety of nuclear stabilizing reactions in a manner similar to both ZIPP and RIPPLE Fission.

Scalar Interferometry: This process Involves the interference of Scalar/Longitudinal EM waves to modify or disrupt the matter stabilizing frequencies of the Zero-Point field in a defined region of space or by direct excitation of the nucleus at harmonic frequencies resulting in greatly accelerated nuclear decay to stable end products in target materials enveloped by the scalar field.

Bio-Nuclear Remediation: Utilizes the high voltage gradients, dielectric micro-cavities (ie contractile vacuoles, etc) and scalar wave frequencies believed common to living systems to modify the Zero-Point Field causing cold fission, fusion and accelerated decay reactions.  These reactions occur widely in nature, explaining all manner of mass balance anomolies in agronomy, medicine and elsewhere and have been researched extensively by Louis Kervran and others.

LENTEC Processes: Novel Electrolytic Cells and operating regimes are employed to produce Low Energy Nuclear Transmutations (LENT) using High Density Electron Clusters (HIDEC) or EV’s, which induce nuclear reactions in the electrolyte and electrode materials containing the targeted radwaste.  This method is based in part on the foundational work of Pons’ and Fleishmann’s controversial cold fusion experiments.

PIT Processes: Plasma Injected or Induced Transmutations (PIT) processes utilize various glow discharge and HIDEC or High Density Charge Cluster (HDCC) phenomena within rarified gaseous atmospheres to effect transmutations through the apparent coherence of the local ZPF.

 

Cuboctacores

Updated Mar 17/07

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March 25, 2014

Terms of the Week: All Terms Pertaining to the WIPP Plant

The Waste Isolation Pilot Program only accepts what is called Transuranic Waste or TRU waste. While they have requested from Hanford to be able to accept High Level Radioactive Waste, only TRU waste is currently stored at WIPP.

In order to understand the ongoing issues at the Waste Isolation Pilot Program  (WIPP), it is helpful to learn the terminology that coincides with both kinds of nuclear waste, high level and TRU. A note to you however, is that this is complicated. In order to fully understand these terms we must break down terms into more terms for you.

Nuclear Waste –All nuclear power plants create nuclear waste. You might even hear that Small Modular Reactors running on Thorium, do not. Wrong. They do create nuclear waste. All nuclear power plants create nuclear waste.

1.High Level Nuclear Waste— High Level Waste is hazardous to humans and all life forms. This is referring to  the amount of radiation within the waste itself. Even very short periods of exposure produce fatal doses. There are two kinds of HLNW.

Uranium fuel is High Level Nuclear Waste which has been used in nuclear reactors for a certain time period. You’ve heard called Fuel Rods. When the uranium-235 pellets on the inside of those fuel rods have completed  their job for powering the reactor by creating fission, they are termed Spent, as in Spent Fuel Rods.

Fuel_pool

A.Spent Fuel Rods–This is another term. And an oxymoronic term at that! Spent Fuel is never spent. It will remain the most radioactive substance on our planet which men created, for thousands of years to come. It will require remote handling and shielding or the releases from the waste will create cancers in all who inhale or digest it. Protecting this highly radioactive waste is extremely difficult, unrealistic and so far has proven impossible to keep safe from outside of its containment. Fuel Rods are removed from nuclear reactors about every 12 to 18 months and are moved to Fuel Pools for cooling.

Process to get to be a Spent Fuel Rod:

1.Uranium Mines are created usually on Native American lands

2. Uranium is dug up creating tailing ponds on the land leaving cancer in it’s wake usually to Native American’s living on the land of the uranium mine. It is common to find children playing near these mines. Learn more.

Abandoned uranium mine in Black Hills, SD on Lakota Land

Abandoned uranium mine in Black Hills, SD on Lakota Land

..

3. Processing Uranium for depleted uranium which will be sold to nuclear power plants. Processing uranium at the Paducah Plant needed 11 coal plants to fuel the uranium processing plant in order to make fuel that was sold to the Columbia Generating Station in 2012 for more than it was worth on the open market.

4. Fuel rods are used in Nuclear Reactors for power to generate boiling water.

Nuclear Fuel Pellets

Nuclear Fuel Pellets

5. When the rods are “spent” they go to a cooling pool for 3-7 years after which, these still very high radioactive rods get moved to underground tanks or dry cask storage. But the rods or Waste, will stay hot for at least 1000 years, much longer than any containment material can withstand. The duration for containment for tanks has been seen to be 20 years at most for underground double shelled tanks and possibly 40 years for dry cask storage. That is a long way from a minimum of 100 years.

NOTE 1: THERE ARE NO PERMANENT DISPOSAL REPOSITORIES FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL.

B. Spent Cooling Pools

Spent fuel pools are storage pools for spent fuel from nuclear reactors. They must be deep enough to keep all fuel rods and fuel bundles covered in cool water in order to keep them from becoming too hot and exploding as we witnessed in Building 4 at Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan. Rods are kept at these cooling pools for years until they are cool enough, though always hot (highly radioactive), to move to dry cask storage or to get reprocessed. The water acts as a buffer to keep radiation from escaping from the rods.

Fuel Rods in pool

Fuel Rods in pool

Many Spent Cooling Pools are 6 stories high with no containment around the building. This was the case in Japan and is the case at Nuclear Plants in the United States like the Columbia Generating Station in WA State. The lack of containment only makes this more dangerous to all life near these reactors or in the wind’s path. An Event could cause the pool to dry out as in the case in Japan, and the rods to explode causing hundreds of radionuclides to blow clear into the atmosphere. We are still seeing Black Dust from the Zirconium Cladding around the fuel rods as far from Fukushima as Tokyo and South of Tokyo in Japan.

Transuranic Waste: When uranium atoms split during the production of nuclear power, it creates fission products like cesium-137 and strontium-90. These isotopes, as they are called, are part of high-level waste. Sometimes uranium atoms also capture heavier elements like plutonium. When the isotopes are heavier than uranium, they are called Transuranic or TRU. TRU waste account for much of the radioactive high-level waste lasting more than one thousand years. WIPP accepts TRU waste from Hanford and from other sites around the country.

DOE Drums of TRU Waste for WIPP

DOE Drums of TRU Waste for WIPP

WIPP

WIPP is America’s only deep geological nuclear repository located about 2,150 ft deep inside a salt mine. The story about WIPP was always that Nothing Can Go Wrong At WIPP. In early Feb of 2014 a truck caught inside the mine. On Feb 14 of 2014 part of the ceiling collapsed crushing multiple 500 gallon drums contain TRU waste. Americium and Plutonium were released traveling up the vent system 2, 150 ft high to the outside and then traveling airborne for a definitive 2 mile stretch where Plutonium was found. The DOE has not released ongoing radiation figures or allowed the public to know what exactly happened in the salt mine but as of this date, March 25, 2014, the WIPP company can still not go inside the mine due to high amounts of radiation. The DOE and WIPP officials continue to tell the public that the radiation levels are too low to worry about but apparently too hot for them to go inside the plant.

 

 

 


We have to start with basic terminology in order to learn to speak intelligently about radiation. We will change the terms each week.

 


Glossary

  1. ABCC Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. Now called Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF)
  2. Alpha particle an electrically charged ( + ) particle emitted from the nucleus of some radioactive chemicals, cf. plutonium. It contains 2 protons and 2 neutrons, and is the largest of the atomic particles emitted by radioactive chemicals. It can cause ionization.
  3. Beta particle an electrically charged ( – ) particle emitted from some radioactive chemicals. It has the mass of an electron. Krypton 85, emitted from nuclear power plants, is a strong beta emitter. Beta particles can cause ionization.
  4. Curie a measure of radioactivity. One curie equals 3.7 x 10^10 nuclear transformations per second. Ci is the symbol used.
    • Microcurie: one-millionth of a curie.
      (3.7 x 10^4 disintegrations per second) mCi is the symbol used.
    • Picocurie: one-millionth of a microcurie.
      (3.7 x 10^-2 disintegrations per second) pCi is the symbol used.
  5. Dose energy imparted to matter by nuclear transformations (radioactivity).
    • Rad = 100 ergs per gram.
      1 GRAY = 100 rad = 10,000 ergs per gram.
    • Rem = rads x Q
      where Q is a quality factor which attempts to convert rads from different types of radioactivity into a common scale of biological damage.
      1 SIEVERT = 100 rad.
  6. Gamma ray short wave-length electromagnetic radiation released by some nuclear transformations. It is similar to X-ray and will penetrate through the human body. Iodine 131 emits gamma rays. Both gamma and X-rays cause ionization.
  7. Half-life, biological time required for the body to eliminate one-half of an administered quantity of a radioactive chemical.
  8. Half-life, physical time required for half of a quantity of radioactive material to undergo a nuclear transformation. The chemical resulting from the transformation may be either radioactive or non-radioactive.
  9. Ionization sufficient energy is deposited in a neutral molecule to displace an electron, thus replacing the neutral molecule with positive and negative ions.
  10. Radiation the emission and propagation of energy through space or tissue in the form of waves. It usually refers to electromagnetic radiation, classified by its frequency: radio, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-ray, gamma ray and cosmic rays.
    • Natural background radiation –
      emissions from radioactive chemicals which are not man-made. These chemicals include uranium, radon, potassium and other trace elements. They are made more hazardous through human activities such as mining and milling, since this makes them more available for uptake in food, air and water.
    • Background radiation –
      includes emissions from radioactive chemicals which occur naturally and those which result from the nuclear fission process. The meaning of this term is vague. In a licensing process it includes radiation from all sources other than the particular nuclear facility being licensed, even if the source includes a second nuclear facility located on the same site (US regulations). Radioactive chemicals released from a nuclear power plant are called `background’ after one year.

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