Lab Tests

Please check in here occasionally to see results from food tests primarily on marine life from the Pacific. It is IMPERATIVE that we see testing done persistently, repeatedly, and that those results along with the actual lab documents can be seen publicly. We need to know how our ocean life is enduring.

ALERT NOTICE: 

FOOD IS NOT SAFE TO EAT WHEN EVEN TRACE AMOUNTS OF PLUTONIUM, STRONTIUM-90, IODINE-131, CESIUM -134/137, OR ANY NUMBER OF OTHER ISOTOPES ARE FOUND WITHIN IT.

IT IS NOT ACCEPTABLE FOR THE EPA AND THE FDA TO ALLOW UNITED STATES CITIZENS TO EAT RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES WHICH DO NOT BELONG IN FOODS.



This was an article from 2012.

Canopy-Forming Kelps as California’s Coastal Dosimeter:131I from Damaged Japanese Reactor Measured inMacrocystis pyrifera

 

The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant, damaged by an earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 released large amounts of 131I into the atmosphere, which was assimilated into canopy blades of Macrocystis pyrifera sampled from coastal California. The specific activity calculated to the estimated date of deposition/assimilation ranged from 0.6 to 2.5 Bq gdwt–1, levels greater than those measured from kelps from Japan and Canada prior to the release. These 131I levels represent a significant input into the kelp forest ecosystem. Canopy-forming kelps are a natural coastal dosimeter that can measure the exposure of the coastal environment to131I and perhaps other radioisotopes released from nuclear accidents. An organizational mechanism should be in place to ensure that they are sampled immediately and continuously after such releases.

EneNews summarizes the data:

Corona Del Mar (Highest in Southern California)

  • 2.5 Bq/gdwt (gram dry weight)= 2,500 Bq/kg of dry seaweed

Santa Cruz (Highest in Central California)

  • 2.0 Bq/gdwt = 2,000 Bq/kg of dry seaweed

Simon Fraser University in Canada also tested North American seaweed after Fukushima:

  • “In samples of dehydrated seaweed taken on March 15 near the North Vancouver SeaBus terminal, the count was zero; on March 22 it was 310 Bq per kilogram; and by March 28 it was 380 Bq/kg.” -Vancouver Sun
  • Seaweed in Seattle also tested positive for iodine-131; levels were not reported -KIRO
  • No results after March 28 were reported

In addition, radioactive debris is starting to wash up on the Pacific Coast. And because the Japanese areburning radioactive materials instead of disposing of them, .

 

Citing Articles

View all 4 citing articles

Citation data is made available by participants in CrossRef’s Cited-by Linking service. For a more comprehensive list of citations to this article, users are encouraged to perform a search in SciFinder.

This article has been cited by 3 ACS Journal articles

FROM ADAM IN JAPANAtlantic Canadian Dulce Test
Sorry, I’ve been out of the loop for awhile. Anyway, I had promised to share the results of a testing I had done on Atlantic Dulse (Canadian) using a high-end Japanese spectrometer owned by a volunteer group. This detects Cesium down to 1bq/kg and all tests are for 10 hours. The test did come up positive for Cesium (2bq/kg) and it was attributed to Chernobyl due to the ratio of 137 vs 134. Apparently there was a fair amount of fallout in this area. My other tests of various Japanese foods and dirt, although mostly from Western Japan, have all turned up negative. Many of these items registered 50+ CPM, but it was due to potassium, which you can also see is high in the dulse.

Tepco has been lying to us since 311 happened. I am particularly interested in watching the numbers of Bqs rise in Tritium and Strontium counts and noting how long Tepco knew about these numbers before they told us. The pattern is usually to allow at least 6 months to go by before putting out old numbers that are astronomically high. I don’t know why they do that; it is not as if others can do anything about it or as if those numbers can at this point make Fukushima appear worse than it is. How do you get worse than Hell? Fukushima is hell. Often times TEPCO will release these numbers 6 months late and then in another few months tell us that the numbers from earlier were also known to have been much higher than they said in the first place. It is a sick game. Very sadistic, I believe. Below is a recent example.

 

5,000,000,000 Bq/m3 of Strontium-90 measured from groundwater last July / Tepco not announced for half a year [URL]

 

On 5/28/2014, Tepco announced that they actually detected 1,000,000,000 Bq/m3 of Strontium-90 from groundwater 9 months ago. They also measured 580,000,000 ~ 890,000,000 Bq/m3 of Strontium-90 from another observing well 8 ~ 9 months ago.

 

The sampling location was the seaside of reactor2. It was known that extremely high level of radioactive material had been measured in groundwater of this area, but they didn’t announce Strontium-90 data.

The sampling date was September ~ October of 2013. It is highly likely that the contaminated water of this severe density of Strontium-90 has been leaking to the Pacific for at least 9 months continuously.

 

This summer, Fukushima prefectual government is going to open the swimming beach, and don’t even analyze the beach sand. Because contamination is not supposed to exist, they are not supposed to analyze. Because they don’t analyze, contamination is not supposed to exist.

(cf, Fukushima gov to open swimming beach / 94 Bq/Kg from sea floor, but don’t even check sand [URL 2])


High level of radiation from fish 193,000 Bq/Kg of Cs-134/137 from fish in Fukushima plant port

Please open link for the charts. Right now these are only in Japanese. I am trying to get them translated into English. http://www.tepco.co.jp/nu/fukushima-np/f1/smp/2014/images/fish01_140516-j.pdf

 

From Mochizuki
On 5/16/2014, Tepco announced they measured 193,000 Bq/Kg of Cesium-134/137 from Spotbelly rockfish. The fish was caught in Fukushima plant port this April.

Related to this article. Tepco discharged 561t of bypass contaminated groundwater to the Pacific [URL]

Extremely high level of radioactive material is still measured from fish in Fukushima plant port.

On 5/16/2014, Tepco announced they measured 193,000 Bq/Kg of Cesium-134/137 from Spotbelly rockfish. The fish was caught in Fukushima plant port this April.

The radioactive density is 1,930 times much as Japanese food safety limit.

Fukushima plant is releasing countless other nuclides such as Strontium-90 or Tritium, but these nuclides were not tested on this sample, which doesn’t mean “not detected”.

The bones and organs of fish were not analyzed either, and Tepco hasn’t made any explanation about why they don’t.

 


Evaluation of radiation doses and associated risk from the Fukushima nuclear accident to marine biota and human consumers of seafood

 

Abstract

Radioactive isotopes originating from the damaged Fukushima nuclear reactor in Japan following the earthquake and tsunami in March 2011 were found in resident marine animals and in migratory Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT). Publication of this information resulted in a worldwide response that caused public anxiety and concern, although PBFT captured off California in August 2011 contained activity concentrations below those from naturally occurring radionuclides. To link the radioactivity to possible health impairments, we calculated doses, attributable to the Fukushima-derived and the naturally occurring radionuclides, to both the marine biota and human fish consumers. We showed that doses in all cases were dominated by the naturally occurring alpha-emitter 210Po and that Fukushima-derived doses were three to four orders of magnitude below 210Po-derived doses. Doses to marine biota were about two orders of magnitude below the lowest benchmark protection level proposed for ecosystems (10 µGy⋅h−1). The additional dose from Fukushima radionuclides to humans consuming tainted PBFT in the United States was calculated to be 0.9 and 4.7 µSv for average consumers and subsistence fishermen, respectively. Such doses are comparable to, or less than, the dose all humans routinely obtain from naturally occurring radionuclides in many food items, medical treatments, air travel, or other background sources. Although uncertainties remain regarding the assessment of cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation to humans, the dose received from PBFT consumption by subsistence fishermen can be estimated to result in two additional fatal cancer cases per 10,000,000 similarly exposed people.

  • 1To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: nicholas.fisher@stonybrook.edu.
  • 2Present address: School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794.

  • Author contributions: N.S.F., Z.B., and D.J.M. designed research; N.S.F., K.B.-S., T.G.H., Z.B., and D.J.M. performed research; N.S.F., K.B.-S., T.G.H., Z.B., and J.G.-L. analyzed data; and N.S.F., K.B.-S., T.G.H., Z.B., and J.G.-L. wrote the paper.

  • The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  • This article is a PNAS Direct Submission.

  • This article contains supporting information online at www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1073/pnas.1221834110/-/DCSupplemental.

Freely available online through the PNAS open access option.

Berkeley RadWatch

Alaskan Red Salmon Results 2011-2013

This summarizes the gamma-ray analyses of three Red Salmon samples caught in the Kenai River in Alaska. Three samples, one from 2011, 2012, and 2013 were analyzed at the LBNL Low Background Facility. A small amount of Fukushima-sourced radio-cesium was found in the July 2011 sample, likely from the initial airborne releases of radioactivity in Spring of 2011. No Fukushima-related radioisotopes were found in the 2012 and 2013 samples. In all samples, naturally radioactive potassium absolutely dominated the gamma spectrum. Additional commentary is included as explanation for those not as familiar with gamma counting.

 

Table of Results:

Sample Type Location Date Collected Date Measured Sample Size Cs-134 [Bq/kg] Cs-137 [Bq/kg] K-40 (natural) [Bq/kg] Pb-210 (natural) [Bq/kg] Bi-214 (natural) [Bq/kg]
Red Salmon Kenai River, AK July 2011 01/07/2014 370.9 g 0.04(1) 0.23(1) 111.5(7) 0.36(4) 0.092(14)
Red Salmon Kenai River, AK July 2012 01/09/2014 629.8 g n.d. < 0.006 0.14(1) 121.4(6) 0.48(5) 0.017(4)
Red Salmon Kenai River, AK July 2013 01/17/2014 771.6 n.d. < 0.008 0.14(1) 121.1(8) 0.45(7) 0.034(12)

** Note: n.d. indicates that the listed isotope was ‘not detected’ and a one sigma upper limit is listed.

These results are presented in graphical form in Figures 2.

 

Overview

The 2011, 2012, and 2013 Red Sockeye Salmon samples were analyzed at the LBNL Low Background Facility. The samples were sent via overnight shipping from Alaska to Berkeley, CA. Each fish sample was caught in July of its respective year. The samples consisted of: one fillet from 2011, several filets from 2012, and three fillets from 2013; all caught in the Kenai River. The analysis for these samples was inspired, in part, by a YouTube video showing salmon samples being tested with a Geiger counter and showing excess counts over background. What that gentleman was seeing, most likely, was variation in backgrounds in the room or perhaps 40K in the fish.

All samples were counted in the Low Background Facility, on a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. This detector is set up to be a very low background system, which allows it to detect very small amounts of radioactivity as compared to other systems. It is in a laboratory space constructed of very thick, low-radioactivity concrete and is equipped with an active veto system to reduce cosmic-ray muon induced backgrounds. What a system such as this offers over typical Geiger counters, in addition to the low background environment that increases its sensitivity, is that it carries spectroscopic capabilities. A Geiger counter will only detect radioactivity—but not tell you anything about it—was it natural, unnatural, or what energy did the gamma ray carry? HPGe detectors allow you to separate gamma rays according to energy, so one can make precise identification and quantification of its source. At low levels, natural variations of primordial radionuclides found in essentially anything can produce excess counts on a Geiger counter that can easily be interpreted as ‘contamination.’ Or for instance, a Geiger counter would not see a small amount of man-made radioactivity if there is also a large amount of natural radioactivity present. HPGe detectors, however, have the ability to separate these sources and produce more detailed information.

Note that what is discussed here will simply be the radioactivity of the sources and not the induced dose. Often these are quite different. In all of the samples pictured here, the dominant activity dominating the gamma-ray spectra was natural potassium 40K. Also detected are varying activities of uranium and thorium series isotopes, which contain many α emitters. Alpha particles quite often present the highest dose to tissues, as they do the largest amount of damages to cells. Outside of the body, these are often not a major issue as they cannot make it through the skin, for instance. But inside the body is another story. One of the significant sources of a natural yearly dose comes from the inhalation of radon and radon daughters, found in both the uranium and thorium series as 222Rn and 220Rn, respectively. In the case of 222Rn, it decays through a series of α and β emitters that present their primary exposure when they embed themselves in the lungs and emit these particles directly upon sensitive tissues. It is the same with isotopes ingested as food into the body. With these salmon samples, although 134,137Cs was detectable in some samples, it was far below the levels of natural 40K. After converting to dose, however, you would find that even the 40K dose would be far below the dose from natural α emitters in the samples. One isotope alone, 210Po, was found by Fischer, et. al. [1] to dominate the dose from tuna found with Fukushima-derived radioisotopes by many orders of magnitude. (We highly recommend reading that paper.) Their dose calculations were based off of the migratory studies by the same group in the papers from Madigan et. al. [2] &[3].

 

Sample Preparation

The samples arrived via FedEx overnight to Berkeley, CA. Upon arrival, they were immediately stored in a freezer in the Nuclear Engineering department until they could be processed. They were all still frozen upon arrival. Although they could have been analyzed raw, we first baked them to drive off as much moisture as possible, for the sake of keeping the samples fresher. Each was counted for more than 24 hours, so leaving them raw in our containers would have allowed them to start decaying. By drying them out, they could hold up to being out in the open for several days without refrigeration. The mass used in the analysis was the wet or frozen weight of the fish — not the dry ’baked’ weight, which was considerably less. The processed samples, consisting of one or two fillets each, were baked for at least an hour at 400F to dry them out as much as possible. After baking, they were pulled apart into small pieces and placed into a beaker for analysis, as seen in Figure A. Both the scales and muscle tissue were used in the gamma counting.

 

         
Figure A
Left: Preparation of the 2013 salmon fillets, being weighed prior to baking.
Right: The 2013 salmon fillets after baking and loaded into an analysis container for gamma counting.

 

 

Discussion on each Sample:

2011 Salmon: The sample analyzed consisted of one fillet. The natural radioactivity of the potassium in the fish is over 500 times the 137Cs, and nearly 2500 times the activity of the 134Cs.

The FDA Derived Intervention Level for imported foods is 1200 Bq kg−1 (137Cs + 134Cs combined) [7] — this sample is below that by a factor of over 4000. The critical limit set by the FDA for either cesium isotope is 370 Bq kg−1. Even invoking very strict limits, such as one in Japan right now for seafood at 100 Bq kg−1 combined, also agrees that the values for Cs are quite small. (This fish is still below that by a factor of nearly 400.)

Based upon the latter samples, Fukushima is responsible for around 60% of the 137Cs in this fish, and all of the 134Cs. The rest of the 137Cs is from pre-Fukushima, legacy sources (surface weapons testing in the cold war).

Given that this fish was caught in July 2011, and the primary Fukushima release was airborne in March of 2011, and that the fish was caught in a river — initial thought is that the 134Cs and 137Cs in the fish that is Fukushima-derived may be a result of the fish being exposed to it in freshwater. The airborne fallout likely came down across wide regions and the annual runoff of melting snow later concentrated it into the rivers and streams during the spring melt where the fish absorbed it. Therefore, salmon’s exposure may not have been from its life in the Pacific Ocean, but rather from the airborne fallout collecting/concentrating (still at small levels) in river water. However, depending on the migration habits of the fish, it is also possible that it could have been a function of migration such as the tuna study from Madigan, et. Al [23].

See Figures 34, and 5.

2012 Salmon: The sample analyzed consisted of two fillets. 134Cs was not detected in this sample. A one sigma upper limit is provided. The 137Cs present is attributed to only pre-Fukushima, legacy sources. See Figures 6 and 7.

2013 Salmon: The sample analyzed consisted of two fillets. 134Cs was not detected in this sample. A one sigma upper limit is provided. The 137Cs present is attributed to only pre-Fukushima, legacy sources. See Figures 8 and 9.

With these samples, although 134Cs and 137Cs are >detectable this does not mean they are very strong. Rather, it is only because our low background HPGe detector is so sensitive at detecting these minuscule activities that we can even see them at all. We also tested a series of fish purchased in Bay Area retail locations. It is currently in the process of being typeset in a journal, but a proof can be found on arXiv.org [4]. Other Fukushima-related measurements by our local groups can be found in [5] and [6].

Within this document, we choose to emphasize the natural 40K activity as a direct comparison to 134,137Cs because: (1) referencing governmental limits are often quite confusing to the public; (2) comparing and discussing dose rates are confusing to the public, and sometimes the calculations for them change over time as new standards are put into place; (3) potassium and cesium behave similarly so they serve as good proxies for each other since organisms effective at absorbing Cs would also be expected to absorb K well, and vice versa. The combined 134+137Cs found in the salmon was far, far below the 1200 Bq/kg Derived Intervention Level by the FDA [7]. Also, please note that we are not affiliated with the FDA, EPA, or any other accredited analysis laboratory related to food, etc. However, we do have great expertise in the measurement of small amounts of radioactivity.

 

Frequently Asked Questions

Q: Are the radiation levels found in the Salmon safe to eat?

A: Yes. The levels of Cs-134,137 are far below even the strictest of limits, and are minuscule compared to the natural radioactivity present.

 

Figures

 


Figure 1: A bar chart showing the activities within the Salmon samples. Note that the y-axis is in a log scale, which allows you to more easily see small and large values at the same time. Figure 2shows the same plot in linear scale, which demonstrates how dramatic the40K activity is over the others.

 


Figure 2: A bar chart showing the activities within the Salmon samples. Note that the y-axis is in a linear scale, which shows how small the other activities are compared to the 40K activity.

 


Figure 3: The 2011 Salmon sample, at the full gamma energy range. Note the y-axis is in linear scale, which clearly demonstrates the amount of K40 relative to other radioisotopes present.

 


Figure 4: The 2011 Salmon sample gamma spectrum, same as in Figure 3, but this time shown with the y-axis on a logarithmic scale, which allows for viewing small values and large values at the same time.

 


Figure 5: The 2011 Salmon sample, zoomed upon the energy region where Cs-134, 137 isotopes are present.

 


Figure 6: The 2012 Salmon sample, showing the full energy spectrum. Only the Cs-137 peak from legacy sources was detected, the rest are from natural radioactivity.

 


Figure 7: The 2012 Salmon sample, showing energy spectrum zoomed upon the Cs region. Only the Cs-137 peak from legacy sources was detected, the rest are from natural radioactivity. No Cs-134 was present in this sample.

 


Figure 8: The 2013 Salmon sample, showing energy spectrum zoomed upon the Cs region. Only the Cs-137 peak from legacy sources was detected, the rest are from natural radioactivity. No Cs-134 was present in this sample.

 


Figure 9: The 2012 Salmon sample, showing the full energy spectrum. Only the Cs-137 peak from legacy sources was detected, the rest are from natural radioactivity.

 

 

References

[1] N.S.Fisher, K.Beaugelin-Seiller, T.G.Hinton, Z.Baumann, D.J.Madigan, J.Garnier-Laplace, Evaluation of radiation doses and associated risk from the Fukushima nuclear accident to marine biota and human consumers of seafood, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2013). http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1221834110.

[2] D.J.Madigan, Z.Baumann, N.S.Fisher, Pacific bluefintuna transport Fukushima-derived radionuclides from Japan to California, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2012). http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1204859109.

[3] D.J.Madigan, Z.Baumann, O.E.Snodgrass, H.A.Ergl, H.Dewar, N.S.Fisher, Radiocesium in Pacific bluefin tuna thunnus orientalis in 2012 validates new tracer technique, Environmental Science & Technology 47 (2013) 2287–2294.http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es4002423.

[4] A. R. Smith, K. J. Thomas, E. B. Norman, D. L. Hurley, B. T. Lo, Y. D. Chan, P. V. Guillaumon, B. G. Harvey, Measurements of Fission Products from the Fukushima Daiichi Incident in San Francisco Bay Area Air Filters, Automobile Filters, Rainwater, and Food, Journal of Environmental Protection (2014). http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=43366

[5] E.B.Norman, C.T.Angell, P.A.Chodash, Observations of fallout from the Fukushima reactor accident in San Francisco Bay Area rainwater, PLoS ONE 6 (2011) e24330. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024330.

[6] M. S. Bandstra, K. Vetter, D. H. Chivers, T. Aucott, C. Bates, A. Coffer, J. Curtis, D. Hogan, A. Iyengar, Q. Looker, J. Miller, V. Negut, B. Plimley, N. Satterlee, L. Supic, B. Yee, Measurements of Fukushima fallout by the Berkeley Radiological Air and Water Monitoring project, in: Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC), 2011 IEEE, pp. 18–24.http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NSSMIC.2011.6154316.

[7] U.S. Food and Drug Administration, CPG Sec. 560.750 Radionuclides in Imported Foods – Levels of Concern, 2005. Accessed 2013-11-07. http://www.fda.gov/ICECI/ComplianceManuals/CompliancePolicyGuidanceManua….

Thanks to Rob from Bobby 1′s Blog for this:

In case anyone is interested, this is what a professional radiation analysis looks like. It follows the recommendations of the American Chemical Society. They report the amount found, uncertainty, and detection limit. They don’t say stuff like “there is no cesium-134 in the sample”. It is impossible to prove there isn’t any level of an isotope.Cert of Analysis

Kelp Watch

NOTE FROM RADCAST: We have some questions we would like to ask the folks who have put this study together. We must note however, that they have been clear on what they are looking for and why. RadCast would prefer that the study be fully opened to looking for many other isotopes which are and were released into the ocean. When you locate Cesium you also locate the others because they come together as a package, so to speak.  But more research is involved in bringing those others to the surface in the spectrometers used.

We would like to encourage the Kelp Watch team to look for all radioactive isotopes present from Fukushima in the Pacific, not just Cesium 134 and Cesium 137,  so that we have finally, a comprehensive overview of what exactly is on our coast.

We would also like to mention that while certain statements are made in this report regarding Plutonium, i.e.  …”evidence that Plutonium isotopes were released in small quantities [Zheng et al. 2012]” RadCast does not agree that there is such a thing as small quantities of Plutonium. Plutonium at any level is deadly and therefore is always too much. To refer to it as they have, is to mislead the public.

And is it possible that due to the interests of Academia we are not getting a full account of the Cesium upload? Is it possible that Berkeley is giving us an all too rosy picture of how the kelp is doing? Yes. This is possible. But what are we to do? We need studies done. But we must be vigilant in how we view the data.

Kelp Watch 2014 is a scientific campaign, based on collaboration between Dr. Steven L. Manley (Department of Biological Sciences, California State University- Long Beach) and Dr. Kai Vetter (UC Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory), and designed to determine the extent of possible radionuclide contamination (primarily Cesium-137 & -134) of our kelp forest ecosystem from seawater arriving from Fukushima in 2014.

Initiated by Dr. Manley in early November 2013, the project relies on sampling canopy blades of the Giant Kelp (Macrocystis) and Bull Kelp (Nereocystis) several times during 2014.

The project started as California centric but has continued to grow beyond the California coastline and includes locations in Baja-Mexico, Oregon, Washington, British Columbia and Alaska. A site off the Chilean coast will serve as a “reference” sample. Although kelps (brown seaweeds of the Order Laminariales) do not occur in tropical waters, related brown seaweed, Sargassum, will also be collected from waters off Hawaii and Guam.

To date a total of 42 separate populations will be sampled, 31 in California waters, led by 42 marine scientists and numerous assistants. The participants are primarily from academia but also include educators from private organizations. Initially, all participants agreed to participate “pro bono.” Recently, however, USC-Sea Grant and California State University Council on Ocean Affairs, Science & Technology (COAST) have agreed to contribute funds to the project, which will help defray the costs associated with collecting and processing the kelp.

 ABOUT THE LABS:

Several institutions, Moss Landing Marine Laboratory (CSU), Coastal and Marine Institute (SDSU) and CSU- Long Beach, have volunteered to serve as regional processing centers. Processed kelp samples will be sent to Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (UC-Berkeley) for detailed radionuclide analysis involving 4 scientists. As data becomes available it will be posted here for public access.

SAMPLING LOCATIONS:

The locations are all on the map in this link. To read about which radio-isotopes were found, click on each location and read. http://kelpwatch.berkeley.edu/Locations

RESULTS: First Sampling Period

The table below shows the radioactive isotopes measured in each of the kelp samples, corrected to time of collection during the first sampling period (February to March 2014). Some samples were taken beyond this period due to logistical issues. To date, 38 of the 44 sites originally identified have been sampled; 26 of those samples have been analyzed and are shown in the table. The remaining samples will be added to this table as the data becomes available. All data is based on a single sample size (n=1) of 6.5 kg fresh weight of blade tissue. Several sample locations were in close proximity.

The kelp samples were dried and milled into a powder and then sent to LBNL to be measured with a high-purity germanium detector. As expected, all kelp samples contained significant amounts of naturally occurring radioactivity, primarily due to potassium-40 (K-40) since dried kelp has a high potassium content. Also found were smaller amounts of other naturally occurring radioactive isotopes, including Beryllium-7 which is a cosmogenic nuclide present in air and rain, and portions of the Uranium-238 and Thorium-232 radioactive decay chains.

***(RADCAST WILL BE DOING FURTHER QUESTIONING REGARDING THE STATEMENT IN THE PARAGRAPH ABOVE PERTAINING TO FINDINGS OF SMALLER AMOUNTS OF NATURALLY OCCURRING RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES—WE WILL POST OUR FINDINGS HERE)

Cesium-137 was detected in all West Coast samples at very low levels. This isotope is still detectable in the marine environment due to above-ground nuclear weapons testing that took place mostly in the 1950s and 1960s. The very low limits set on the shorter-lived Cesium-134 mean that the Cs-137 cannot be directly tied to the Fukushima releases and is more likely due to these “legacy” sources.

For a sense of scale, the K-40 activities ranged from 2500 to 4500 Becquerels per kilogram dry weight (Bq/kg dwt), where one Becquerel is one nuclear decay per second, while the Cs-137 was detected in all samples at levels ranging from 0.08 to 0.44 Bq/kg, or about 10,000 times lower than K-40. The upper limits set for Cs-134 are approximately 0.04 Bq/kg, or 100,000 times lower than some of the K-40 levels.

A kelp sample obtained from Chile was similarly analyzed and had no detectable Cs-137. This is consistent with the lower levels of Cs-137 known to be in the southern oceans. Because kelps are not found in the tropics, related brown seaweeds, Sargassum sps. were sampled from Hawaii and Guam. The samples from Hawaii and Guam were consistent with the North American samples, showing no signs of Fukushima radioactivity.

TO SEE THE RESULTS GRAPH CLICK HERE

 


by High-Purity Germanium Spectrometry

These are FDA lab procedures explaining step by step how the FDA tests food for radionuclides.

Please see the LINK for details.



 



Link to PDF Here:


WA State Department of Health Results of Tests for Radionuclides in Aquatic organisms, Marine Sediment, and Seawater following events at Fukushima Reactorsimage001

 

1.Called to check in with Eurofins Lab in the US regarding the results of Loki Fish lab tests from 2013 in Seattle. This link shows the results and I am waiting for info back from the lab techs regarding the methods used. http://www.lokifish.com/test_results.pdf

Also waiting to hear back from the sales people at Eurofins to help explain to me to stores who sell fish, how the lab works on the money end of things. How much per test? What do the tests consist of? How much for additional tests, etc.

RESPONSES TO #1: From May 19. Got a call back from sales at Eurofins Lab. They test only for Cesium 134 and 137 as well as I-131. There is no mechanism in place there for tests for strontium, tritium or any other radionuclides so testing for more is not an option. Each test is $170 per. They test the fish wet which is a problem since water holds back rads;to get a real count and idea of what you see, you need to test the samples dried.  She told me she would check w/ the labs to be sure she was correct.

2. Waiting to hear back from the the WA Dept of Health to review the samples they tested for in 2013. Hope to hear back today.

RESPONSE to #2. Have a phone mtg w/ WA Dept of Health at 9 AM tomorrow morning to discuss the results from the 2013 tests.

3. Calling back the middle school where one of the students wrote a wonderful editorial letter to the editor of the Eugene newspaper in OR. They would not take my call last week. Attempt #2 with a strategic change of plans….


 


As far as we can tell, we have not yet found one store that is testing for radiation in fish from the Pacific.

NEW SEASONS : NO TESTING DONE

RadCast has spoken with New Seasons in Portland, OR and was told that there is no testing down. We requested to speak to the fisherman who sell them the fish to see if we can get them on board to test. We do have access to labs and would offer to do the testing for free at least for the first samples. We are waiting to see if the fisherman will accept the offer to test.

We are fortunate to have scientists doing these studies along the entire West Coast, from Baja to Alaska. 42 sites have been set up for Bull Kelp and Giant Kelp testing. The first results will not be ready until May 2014 and we will post them on RadCast for you to see.

Please read more about the study here.


Measurements of Fission Products from the Fukushima Daiichi Incident in San Francisco Bay Area Air Filters, Automobile Filters, Rainwater, and Food

Results from 311 to the end of 2012

Observed fallout isotopes include 131I, 132I,132Te,134Cs, 136Cs, and 137Cs

Analysis of rainwater in search of 90Sr is also presented.

Last, a series of food measurements conducted in September of 2013 are included due to extended media concerns of 134,137Cs in fish.

Previously unpublished measurements of fallout from Chernobyl are here as well in order to compare results

Kelp Watch 2014

“We’re trying to figure out how much is there and how much is getting into the ecosystem,” said Dr. Matthew Edwards, a professor from San Diego State University. “Things are linked a little more closely than sometimes we’d like to think. Just because it is on the other side of the world doesn’t mean that it doesn’t effect us.”

This study is about the ratio of Radium in soil to the plants grown in that soil. It is very interesting. Radium is an Alpha Emitter.  The numbers are the ratio (in percent) of radium in the plant vs. radium in the soil. The higher the number, the higher the uptake of radium. This is radium, not cesium, but the uptake ratio can’t be too much different.

Radium Accumulation in Different Plant Species

 

 


Journal of Plant Research Vol 127, Issue 1

New information and studies into radiation and its effects on plants in Japan post-Fukushima-Daichi disaster.

 


Vancouver Food Radiation Monitoring

 Friday, November 8, 2013

Sample Name: blueberry  (dry) 
Blueberries (Hydrated)

Origin: Granny Franny’s Blueberry Farm, Port Coquitlam, BC, Canada

Purchase date: (July 20, 2013) 20月7日2013年
measurement date Date Tested: (October 28, 2013) 28月10日2013年
55 458 seconds (seconds): Duration time measurement
sample container Container: 70mL container (Beaker)
46.7 g: sample weight Sample Weight

Tested by   CRMS Setagaya  (Citizen Radioactivity Measuring Station, Setagaya)

 


 Saturday, October 5, 2013

We tested Local produce of Amano Sweet Miso about commodity survey a year ago.

Here is Our Research about Their products Conducted last year purchased in September 9, Vancouver retail 2013 (24 hours) measurement September 30, 2013 Purchased at Japanese store in vancouver on September 9, 2013 Tested for 24 hours on Sept-30-2013

Bought on September 9, Vancouver retail 2013 (24 hours) measurement September 29, 2013 Purchased at Japanese store in vancouver on September 9, 2013 Tested for 24 hours on September 30, 2013


Price comparisonAmano trading   $ 19.60 / 2.27 kg6409 Arboath St, Burnaby, BC V5E 1C3Sunrise $ 20.50 / 2.27 kg300 Powell St, VancouverFujiya $ 21.29/2.27Kg912 Clark Dr, Vancouver


Sunday, October 27, 2013

Commercial potato Potato sold in Greater Vancouver

(10, 2013 July) 10月7日2013年taken years Purchase date
10 7 2013: measurement date Date Tested days (July 10, 2013)
measurement time Duration: 21200 seconds (seconds)
testing equipment Detector: NaI 5 ” x4 ”
sample weight Sample Weight: 1.472K g

 


 Sunday, October 27, 2013

Commercial Mushroom sold in Greater Vancouver

23 6 2013: measurement date Date Tested days (June 23, 2013)
measurement time Duration: 31028 seconds (seconds)
testing equipment Detector: NaI 5 ” x4 ”
sample weight Sample Weight: 1K g (Large x 4)

(23, 2013 June) 23月6日2013年taken years Purchase date
23 6 2013: measurement date Date Tested days (June 23, 2013)
measurement time Duration: 31401 seconds (seconds)
testing equipment Detector: NaI 5 ‘ x4 ”
sample weight Sample Weight: 760 g

Saturday, October 26, 2013

BC’s pine mushroom BC Matsutake Mushroom

Sample Name Sample:  Matsutake    
Atsudake Mushroom


            taken place Origin: Terrace, BC, Canadataken years Purchase date: 10月2013年(October, 2013) (16, October 2013) 10月16日2013 measurement date Date Tested       measurement Time Duration: 151903 seconds (seconds) sample container Container: 500m L Marinelli beaker (Marinelli beaker) 456.0 g: sample weight Sample Weight Tested by   CRMS Setagaya (Citizen Radioactivity Measuring Station, Setagaya)

 

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