Where are the Nukes??

To know how to shut down a nuke plant, you have to know where the nuke plants are. This is a list written by a reader of ours and a contributer to RadCast.

PREVENTION: The first step in shutting down a nuke plant is to prevent it from being built.

 Nuclear Plant Construction

Most reactors currently planned are in the Asian region, with fast-growing economies and rapidly-rising electricity demand.

Many countries with existing nuclear power programs (Argentina, Armenia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Czech Rep., France, India, Pakistan, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, South Korea, South Africa, Ukraine, UK, USA) have plans to build new power reactors (beyond those now under construction).

In all, about 160 power reactors with a total net capacity of some 177,000 MWe are planned and over 320 more are proposed. Energy security concerns and greenhouse constraints on coal have combined with basic economics to put nuclear power back on the agenda for projected new capacity in many countries.

In the USA there are plans for 13 new reactors, and two combined construction and operating license’s for these were issued early in 2012 while five more are under review. All are for late third-generation plants, and a further proposal is for two ABWR units. it is expected that some of the new reactors will be on line by 2020.

In Canada there are plans to build up to 2200 MWe or more of new capacity at Darlington in Ontario.

In Finland, construction is now under way on a fifth, very large reactor which will come on line in 2014, and plans are firming for another large one to follow it.

France is building a similar 1600 MWe unit at Flamanville, for operation from 2016, and a second may follow it at Penly.

In the UK, four similar 1600 MWe units are planned for operation by 2019, and a further 6000 MWe is proposed.

Romania’s second power reactor istarted up in 2007, and plans are being implemented for two further Canadian units to operate by 2017.

Slovakia is completing two 470 MWe units at Mochovce, to operate from 2014.

Bulgaria is planning to build a large new reactor at Kozloduy.

Belarus is planning two large new Russian reactors at Ostrovets, the first to start in 2019.

In Russia, ten reactors are under active construction, one being a large fast neutron reactor. About 14 further reactors are then planned, some to replace existing plants, and by 2017 ten new reactors totaling at least 9.2 GWe should be operating. Further reactors are planned to add new capacity. This will increase the country’s present nuclear power capacity by 50% in 2020. In addition about 5 GW of nuclear thermal capacity is planned. A small floating power plant is expected to be completed by 2014 and others are planned to follow.

Poland is planning two 3000 MWe nuclear power plants.

South Korea plans to bring a further four reactors into operation by 2017, and another five by 2021, giving total new capacity of 12,200 MWe. Of these, all but one are the Advanced PWRs of 1400 MWe. These APR-1400 designs have evolved from a US design which has US NRC design certification, and four been sold to the UAE (see below).

Japan has two reactors under construction but another three which were likely to start building by mid 2011 have been deferred.

In China, now with 15 operating reactors on the mainland, the country is well into the next phase of its nuclear power program. Some 26 reactors are under construction and many more are likely to be so in 2012. Those under construction include the world’s first Westinghouse AP1000 units, and a demonstration high-temperature gas-cooled reactor plant is due to start construction. Many more units are planned, with construction due to start within three years. But most capacity under construction is the largely indigenous CPR-1000 design. China aims at least to quadruple its nuclear capacity from that operating and under construction by 2020.

On Taiwan, Taipower is building two advanced reactors (ABWR) at Lungmen.

India has 20 reactors in operation, and seven under construction (two expected to be completed in 2013). This includes two large Russian reactors and a large prototype fast breeder reactor as part of its strategy to develop a fuel cycle which can utilize thorium. Twenty further units are planned. 18 further units are planned, and proposals for more – including western and Russian designs – are taking shape following the lifting of trade restrictions.

Pakistan has third and fourth 300 MWe reactors under construction at Chashma, financed by China. There are plans for more Chinese power reactors.

In Kazakhstan, a joint venture with Russia’s Atomstroyexport envisages development and marketing of innovative small and medium-sized reactors, starting with a 300 MWe Russian design as baseline for Kazakh units.

In Iran nuclear power plant construction was suspended in 1979 but in 1995 Iran signed an agreement with Russia to complete a 1000 MWe PWR at Bushehr. This started up in 2011 and was grid connected in August.

The United Arab Emirates has awarded a $20.4 billion contract to a South Korean consortium to build four 1400 MWe reactors by 2020. The first are under construction.

Jordan has committed plans for its first reactor to be operating by 2020, and is developing its legal and regulatory infrastructure.

Turkey has contracts signed for four 1200 MWe Russian nuclear reactors at one site and is negotiating similar capacity at another. Its legal and regulatory infrastructure is well-developed.

Vietnam has committed plans for its first reactors at two sites (2×2000 MWe), to be operating by 2020, and is developing its legal and regulatory infrastructure. The first plant will be a turnkey project built by Atomstroyexport. The second will be Japanese.